Tones are what makes Chinese different (and harder) than most other languages. So how do you practice your tones in the most effective way possible?
To improve your tones, you need to build muscle memory in your vocal cords and in your mouth. Just like singers do vocal exercises to train their vocal cords, language learners need to do speaking drills that maximize the number of spoken “reps” and improve the mind-mouth connection.
In this article I'm going to show you three different spoken language workouts that you can do to improve your tones. There are two important prerequisites:
I'm assuming that you are at the level where you can hear the difference between the four tones, and realize when you're saying them incorrectly.
I’m assuming that you are familiar with pinyin to the point where you can pronounce nearly all 407 sounds accurately, without thinking too much
Imagine you’re a musician—how would you practice?
To understand the best way to practice Chinese tones, it can help us to think about how musicians practice to reach their goals. Our goal as language learners is to pronounce tones perfectly whenever we speak Chinese. This is a lot like jazz musicians, whose goal is to hit every note they play perfectly whenever they’re improvising (musical improvisation is a lot like speaking a foreign language). The issue is that musical improvisation is insanely difficult--how do jazz musicians practice so that they’re eventually able to improvise effortlessly?
Throughout their musical careers, their practice regimens may look something like this:
Practice playing individual notes with perfect intonation
Practice scales at different speeds, maintaining perfect intonation
Practice variations of scales, like arpeggios and other exercises at different speeds, maintaining perfect intonation
Practice playing sheet music pieces from start to finish with perfect intonation and no wrong notes
Imitate and practice advanced licks that other musicians play, and adapt them to your own style
Combine licks and phrases that you’ve practiced to craft an improvised solo
Musicians don’t start improvising right away. They start by just practicing single notes, then they string those notes together into scales, and then they practice small pieces, then longer pieces. All the while they’re trying to hit each note correctly and with good intonation. Eventually, they’ve developed a big enough vocabulary of musical phrases that they can imitate complex patterns by ear and even string together their own phrases spontaneously.
Improvisation in music and language is not about creating something from nothing. It’s about using your vocabulary of phrases that you have developed through rigorous practice to string together new combinations of notes or words.
Now let’s come up with a practice regimen for tones based on the one for jazz above: